Bibliography of studies linking creoles and sign languages

Compiled by Peter Bakker, Julie Bakken Jepsen and Aymeric Daval-Markussen

Additions and corrections welcome; pleae send to

     Adam, Robert. 2012. Language contact and borrowing. In Roland Pfau, Markus Steinbach & Bencie Woll (eds.), Sign Language - An International Handbook, 862-889. Berlin: de Gruyter.

     Adone, Dany. 2005. Acquisition without a Language Model: The Case of Mauritian Home Sign. In Alejna Brugos, Manuella R. Clark-Cotton & Seungwan Ha (eds.), BUCLD 29: Proceedings of the 29th annual Boston University Conference on Language Development, 12-23.

     Adone, Dany. 2012. Language emergence and creolisation. In Roland Pfau, Markus Steinbach & Bencie Woll (eds.), Sign Language - An International Handbook, 862-889. Berlin: de Gruyter.

     Adone, Dany. 2012. The acquisition of creole languages: how children surpass their input. New York: Cambridge University Press.

     Aronoff, Mark, Irit Meir, Carol Padden & Wendy Sandler. 2003. Classifier Constructions and Morphology in Two Sign Languages. In Karen Emmorey (ed.), Perspectives on Classifier Constructions in Sign Langauges, 53-84. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.

     Aronoff, Mark, Irit Meir & Wendy Sandler. 2005. The paradox of sign language morphology. Language, 81(2): 301-344.

     Bakker, Peter. 1987. Autonomous Languages. Signed and Spoken Languages created by children in the light of Bickerton's Bioprogram Hypo­thesis. Amsterdam: Publikaties van het Instituut voor Algemene Taalwetenschap 53.

     Bakker, Peter. 1990. The structure of autonomous languages: natural or not? In Walter A. Koch (ed.), Natürlichkeit der Sprache und der Kultur. Acta Colloquii, 74-95. (BBS - Bochumer Beiträge zur Semiotik 18). Bochum: Universitätsverlag Dr. Norbert Brockmeyer.

     Bakker, Peter. 2012. Review article. Hand Talk: Sign Language among American Indian Nations by Jeffrey E. Davis. International Journal of American Linguistics, 78(1): 127-132.

     Cokely, Dennis. 1983. When is a Pidgin Not a Pidgin? An Alternate Analysis of the ASL-English Contact Situation. Sign Language Studies, 38: 1-24.

     Cokely, Dennis & Rudolph Gawlik. 1974. Childrenese as Pidgin. Sign Language Studies, 5: 72-81.

     Deuchar, Margaret. 1984. British Sign Language. London: Routledge.

     Deuchar, Margaret. 1985. The implications of sign language research for linguistic theory.  In William Stokoe & Virginia Volterra (eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Sign Language Research, 239-246. Silver Spring, MA: Linstok Press and Rome: Istituto di Psicología.

     Deuchar Margaret. 1987. Sign languages as creoles and Chomsky's notion of universal grammar. In Sohan Modgil & Celia Modgil (eds.), Noam Chomsky. Consensus and Controversy, 81-91, 104-105. London: Falmer Press.

     Edwards, Vivian & Paddy Ladd. 1984. The linguistic status of British Sign Language. Papers from the York Creole Conference, York Papers in Linguistics, 11: 75-82.

     Fay, Nicolas, Casey J. Lister, T. Mark Ellison, & Susan Goldin-Meadow.  2014. Creating a communication system from scratch: Gesture beats vocalization hands down. Frontiers in Psychology (Language Sciences), 5: 1-12.

     Feldman, Heidi, Susan Goldin-Meadow & Lila Gleitman. 1978. Beyond Herodotus: the creation of language by linguistically deprived deaf children. In Andy Lock (ed.), Action, Gesture and Symbol. The Emergence of Language, 351-414. London: Academic Press.

     Fischer, Susan D. 1978. Sign Language and Creoles. In Patricia Siple (ed.), Understanding Language through Sign Language Research, 309-331. London: Academic Press.

     Gee , James Paul & Wendy Goodhart. 1985. Nativization, linguistic theory and deaf language acquisition. Sign Language Studies, 49: 291-342.

     Gee, James Paul & Judith L. Mounty. 1991. Nativization, variability, and style shifting in the sign language development of Deaf children of hearing parents. In Patricia Siple, Susan D. Fischer (eds.), Theoretical Issues in Sign Language Research, vol. 2: Psychology, 65-83. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

     Gébert, Alain & Dany Adone. 2006. A dictionary and grammar of Mauritian sign language. Vacoas, République de Maurice: Editions Le Printemps.

     Gil, David. 2014. Sign languages creoles and the development of predication. In Frederick J. Newmeyer & Laurel B. Preston (eds.), Measuring Grammatical Complexity, 37-64. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

     Goldin-Meadow, Susan. 2003. The Resilience of Language: What gesture creation in deaf children can tell us about how all children learn language. New York: Psychology Press.

     Goldin-Meadow, Susan. Several other publications. See

     Hewes, Gordon W. 1974. Gesture Language in Culture Contact. Sign Language Studies, 4: 1-34.

     Jenkins, L. 1984. Pidgins, Creoles, and Universal Grammar. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7(2): 196-197.

     Kam, Carla L. Hudson & Whitney Goodrich Smith. 2011. The problem of conventionality in the development of creole morphological systems. Canadian Journal of Linguistics / La revue canadienne de linguistique, 56(1): 109-124

     Kegl, Judy. 2008. The Case of Signed Languages in the Context of Pidgin and Creole Studies. In Silvia Kouwenberg & John Victor Singler (eds.), The Handbook of Pidgin and Creole Studies, 491-511. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.

     Ladd, Paddy & Vivian Edwards. 1982. British Sign Language and West Indian Creole. Sign Language Studies, 35: 101-126.

     Ladd, Paddy & Vivian Edwards. 1983. British Sign Language and West Indian Creole. In Jim G. Kyle & Bencie Woll (eds.), Language in Sign. An International Perspective, 146-158. London/Canberra: Croom Helm.

     Lightfoot, David. 2006. How New Languages Emerge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

     Lupton, Linda & Joe Salmons. 1996. A Re-Analysis of the Creole Status of American Sign Language. Sign Language Studies, 90: 80-94.

     Meier, Richard P. 1984. Sign as creole. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 7 (2): 201-202.

     Meir, Irit, Wendy Sandler, Carol Padden & Mark Aronoff. 2010. Emerging sign languages. In Peter Nathan, Marc Marschark & Patricia Elizabeth Spencer (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Deaf Studies, Language, and Education, vol. 2, 267-280. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

     Newport, Elissa L. 1998. Reduced input in the acquisition of signed languages: Contributions to the study of creolization. In Michel DeGraff (ed.), Language creation and change: creolization, diachrony and development, 161–178. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

     Nyst, Victoria. 2012. Shared sign languages. In Roland Pfau, Markus Steinbach & Bencie Woll (eds.), Sign Language - An International Handbook, 552-574. Berlin: de Gruyter.

     Pfau, Roland. 2012. Manual communication systems: evolution and variation. In Roland Pfau, Markus Steinbach & Bencie Woll (eds.), Sign language. An international handbook, 513-551. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

     Reilly, Judy & Marina L. McIntire. 1980. American Sign Language and Pidgin Sign English: What's the Difference? Sign Language Studies, 27: 151-192.

     Roberge, Paul T. 2009. The creation of pidgins as a possible window on language evolution. In Rudolf Botha & Henriëtte de Swart (eds.), Language Evolution: The View from Restricted Linguistic Systems, 101-137. Utrecht: LOT.

     Schouwstra, Marieke, with Anouschka van Leeuwen, Nicky Marien, Marianne Smit & Henriëtte de Swart. 2011. Semantic structure in improvised communication. In Laura Carlson, Christoph Hoelscher & Thomas F. Shipley (eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 1497-1502. Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

     Schouwstra, Marieke. 2010. Language evolution: the view from second language learners. In Andrew D. M. Smith, Marieke Schouwstra, Bart de Boer & Kenny Smith (eds.), The Evolution of Language, 487-488. Singapore: World Scientific.

     Schouwstra, Marieke. 2012. Semantic structures, communicative strategies and the emergence of language. Utrecht: LOT publications 312.

     Senghas, Ann, Asli Ozyurek & Susan Goldin-Meadow. 2010. The evolution of segmentation and sequencing: Evidence from homesign and Nicaraguan sign language. In Andrew D. M. Smith, Marieke Schouwstra, Bart de Boer & Kenny Smith (eds.), Proceedings from the Eighth Evolution of Language Conference, 279-289. Singapore: World Scientific.

     Singleton, Jenny L. & Elissa L. Newport. 2004. When learners surpass their models: The acquisition of American Sign Language from inconsistent input. Cognitive Psychology, 49: 370–440.

     Stokoe, William C. 1989. Evidence From Exceptions: Sign Language & Bioprograms. Sign Language Studies, 65: 339-348.

     Woodward, James C., Jr. 1973. Some Characteristics of Pidgin Sign English. Sign Language Studies, 3: 39-46.